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Applying Ethical Principles in Healthcare

Develop a solution to a specific ethical dilemma faced by a health care professional by applying ethical principles. Describe the issues and a possible solution in a 3-4 page custom research paper double-spaced pages . References: Integrate information from outside sources to include at least two references (the case study and an academic peer-reviewed journal article). and three in-text citations within the paper (use articles published in the last 5 years).

In this assessment, you will practice working through an ethical dilemma as described in a case study. Your practice will help you develop a method for formulating ethical decisions.
•Apply information literacy and library research skills to obtain scholarly information in the field of health care administration.
oApply academic peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence to support an analysis of the case.
• Apply ethical principles and academic standards to the study of health care.

o Summarize the facts in a case study and use the three components of an ethical decision-making model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that contributed to it.
o Discuss the effectiveness of the communication approaches present in a case study.
o Discuss the effectiveness of the approach used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study.
o Apply ethical principles to a possible solution to an ethical problem or issue described in a case study.
Instructions

For this assessment, develop a solution to a specific ethical dilemma faced by a health care professional. In your assessment:
1. Access the Ethical Case Studies media piece to review the case studies you may use for this assessment.
o Select the case most closely related to your area of interest and use it to complete the assessment.
o Note: The case study may not supply all of the information you need. In such cases, you should consider a variety of possibilities and infer potential conclusions. However, please be sure to identify any assumptions or speculations you make.

o Include the selected case study in your reference list, using proper APA Style and Format.
2. Summarize the facts in a case study and use the three components of an ethical decision-making model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that contributed to it.
o Identify which case study you selected and briefly summarize the facts surrounding it. Identify the problem or issue that presents an ethical dilemma or challenge and describe that dilemma or challenge.
o Identify who is involved or affected by the ethical problem or issue.

o Access the Ethical Decision-Making Model media piece and use the three components of the ethical decision-making model (moral awareness, moral judgment, and ethical behavior) to analyze the ethical issues.
o Apply the three components outlined in the Ethical Decision-Making Model media.
o Analyze the factors that contributed to the ethical problem or issue identified in the case study.
o Describe the factors that contributed to the problem or issue and explain how they contributed.

3. Apply academic peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence to support an analysis of the case.
Cite and apply key principles from the journal article as evidence to support your critical thinking and analysis of the ethical problem or issue.
4. Discuss the effectiveness of the communication approaches present in a case study.
o Describe how the health care professional in the case study communicated with others.
o Assess instances where the professional communicated effectively or ineffectively.

o Explain which communication approaches should be used and which ones should be avoided.
o Describe the consequences of using effective and non-effective communication approaches.
5. Discuss the effectiveness of the approach used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study.
o Describe the actions taken in response to the ethical dilemma or issue presented in the case study.

o Summarize how well the professional managed professional responsibilities and priorities to resolve the problem or issue in the case.
o Discuss the key lessons this case provides for health care professionals.
6. Apply ethical principles to a possible solution to an ethical problem or issue described in a case study.
o Describe the proposed solution.
o Discuss how the approach makes this professional more effective or less effective in building relationships across disciplines within his or her organization.
o Discuss how likely it is the proposed solution will foster professional collaboration.

Ethical Case Study
The Missing Needle Protector
E. L. Straight is director of clinical services at Hopewell Hospital. As in many hospitals, a few physicians provide care that is acceptable, but not of very high quality; they tend to make more mistakes than the others and have a higher incidence of patients going “sour.” Since Straight took the position 2 years ago, new programs have been developed and things seem to be getting better in terms of quality.

Dr. Cutrite has practiced at Hopewell for longer than anyone can remember. Although once a brilliant general surgeon, he has slipped physically and mentally over the years, and Straight is contemplating taking steps to recommend a reduction in his privileges. However, the process is not complete, and Cutrite continues to perform a full range of procedures.

The operating room supervisor appeared at Straight’s office one Monday afternoon. “We’ve got a problem,” she said, somewhat nonchalantly, but with a hint of disgust. “ I’m almost sure we left a plastic needle protector from a disposable syringe in a patient’s belly, a Mrs. Jameson. You know, the protectors with the red–pink color. They’d be almost impossible to see if they were in a wound.”

“Where did it come from?” asked Straight.
“I’m not absolutely sure,” answered the supervisor. “All I know is that the syringe was among items in a used surgical pack when we did the count.” She went on to describe the safeguards of counts and records. The discrepancy was noted when records were reconciled at the end of the week.

A surgical pack was shown as having a syringe, that was not supposed to be there. When the scrub nurse working with Cutrite was questioned, she remembered that he had used a syringe, but, when it was included in the count at the conclusion of surgery, she didn’t think about the protective sheath, which must have been on it.
“Let’s get Mrs. Jameson back into surgery.” said Straight. “We’ll tell her it’s necessary to check her incision and deep sutures. She’ll never know we’re really looking for the needle cover.”

“Too late,” responded the supervisor, “she went home day before yesterday.”
Oh, oh, thought Straight. Now what to do? “Have you talked to Dr. Cutrite?”
The supervisor nodded affirmatively. “He won’t consider telling Mrs. Jameson there might be a problem and calling her back to the hospital,” she said. “And he warned us not to do anything either,” she added. “Dr. Cutrite claims it cannot possibly hurt her. Except for a little discomfort, she’ll never know it’s there.”

Straight called the chief of surgery and asked s hypothetical question about the consequences of leaving a small plastic cap in a patient’s belly. The chief knew something was amiss but didn’t pursue it. He simply replied there would likely be occasional discomfort, but probably no life–threatening consequences from leaving it in. “Although,” he added, “one never knows.”
Straight liked working at Hopewell Hospital and didn’t relish crossing swords with Cutrite, who, although declining clinically, was politically very powerful. Straight had refrained from fingernail biting for years, but that old habit was suddenly overwhelming.

Ethical Decision-Making Model
Ethical decision-making at an individual level and one’s ethical behavior can be viewed in three primary steps using an ethical decision-making model.
First is one’s moral awareness, recognizing the existence of an ethical dilemma. This is the pathway to establishing the need for an ethical decision. This awareness is an individual sensitivity to one’s values and personal morals.
Once a personal awareness is evident, we can make a judgment in deciding what is right or wrong. This sounds simple, yet there are a number of variables driving this personal judgment. One variable is the individual differences and cognitive bias we all have based on our personal history and experiences.

A second variable is the organization. This variable may be influenced from a group, organizational or cultural perspective. A code of conduct or standards of behavior may also influence our judgment.
This model, operating in a dynamic fashion, leads us to our ethical behavior; taking action to do the right thing. Is the right thing the same decision for everyone? Obviously not. We are all influenced my multiple factors in our decision-making.
This decision-making model can help us understand the pathway to our ethical decisions.

Reference
Trevino, L. K., Nelson, K. A. (2007). Business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. Wiley.

APA format
Title APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
First paragraph introduction same title
Second paragraph Overview of the Case Study
Third Analysis of Ethical Issues in the Case Study
Fourth Using the Ethical Decision-Making Model to Analyze the Case Study
Fifth Effectiveness of Communication Approaches in the Case Study
Sixth Resolving the Ethical Dilemma by Applying Ethical Principles
Conclusion
References

Community Health

Public Health Nursing

Community Health Advocacy

Health Influencing Factors

Privacy Issues in Healthcare

Health Policy Integration

Health and Human Services

Ethical Decision Making

Cyber Ethics and Law

Global Impact of Ethics

Corporate Ethics Statement

Organizational Ethics and CSR

Aristotle and Nichomachean Ethics

Ethics Protection of Human Participants

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