Assessing the Effectiveness of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Reducing Pregnancy Rates Among Teenagers in Gwinnett County.

CHAPTER 4. FINDINGS For qualitative dissertations, Chapter 4 should discuss 5 major points: (I have copied in a few sections I thought would be necessary as. Also added researcher reason of why interested in the topic) • The Study and the Researcher This introduction should set the stage for the remainder of the chapter, as well as allow the reader to gain an understanding of the logical flow of how this chapter relates to both the preceding chapters and the following chapter. Information about the research design, methodological assumptions, or any other material covered previously in Chapters One, Two, or Three should not be included in this Introduction. The key issue to remember: this introduces Chapter Four, not the entire dissertation. The second sub-section of Chapter Four is critically important. Here, you will describe your role in the project. Why did you become interested in the topic and what is your personal stake in it? What motivated you to investigate this particular topic? My interest in the topic is I am also a teenage mother who have beat all the obstacles and challenges of the stigmas to continue with education and have a great career. Many teen mothers end up being school dropouts, no support, no education and depended to the handouts. My motivation is that having a child at young age does not end the world. One can still make it -however, there must be support system and one have to want to be supported and want to be different. (please expand) What background did you bring to the project that both strengthens your vision of it and, conversely, interferes with your objectivity? What training and experience have you had in preparation for the project – in understanding the methodological approach itself, in the model you chose, in the data collection protocols and procedures, and in the data analysis procedures? Finally, what personal aspects do you bring to the study which may have an influence on what you learn? • Description of Sample The description of the sample should include demographic information about all the participants in the study. In qualitative research, because generalization is seldom the objective, the description of the actual participants is more important than a general description of a group. Be certain to include all information regarding the participants that is pertinent to the study itself • Research Methodology Applied to Data Collection and Analysis In this section of Chapter Four, provide a description of how the methodological approach was applied to the process of data analysis and how the data analysis was conducted Discuss how the steps of the protocol were actually carried out. In actually performing the analysis, were there differences or departures from the protocol described in Chapter Three? What were they and why did the researcher make those changes? Finally, if any problems arose during data analysis, these should be described here; for example, if data were lost or somehow contaminated, those events and processes would be described here, including any attempts to correct the problem, reconstruct the data, re- collect them, etc • Analysis, Synthesis, and Findings In this section, data and findings should be presented clearly, but with sufficient detail to allow readers to follow the analysis and to refer back to the raw data (words of the participants, field notes, etc.) to find support for the findings. The description should be rich and detailed. Whenever possible, give examples in the words of the participants to support a finding. It is not necessary or appropriate to provide every word from every participant. • Summary Research Q&A Code Report ? Grouped by: Code Groups All (11) codes Groupless 11 Codes: ? Brief description of your role in the project. Goals and Objectives of the program. Specific targets or audience for the program 4 Quotations: 7:5 Program director . Started as social worker in 1998/1999. At the time��… (197:649) – D 7: case 1 Program director . Started as social worker in 1998/1999. At the time made visits in different environments (school, homes etc.) to recruit and shared information about teen pregnancy prevention programs with families, communities. Targeted participants were young teenage girls that became pregnant for the first times. The goal and objectives were to help them continue their education and graduate to better their future and future of their babies. 1 Codes: ? Brief description of your role in the project. Goals and Objectives of the program. Specific targets or audience for the program 8:5 Director of Program Development and has been with the program for over���… (200:928) – D 8: case 2 Director of Program Development and has been with the program for over 23years. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program head. Manages and supervise all aspects of the programs including grants for the projects. Programs goals and objectives were to provide information and educate teenagers in an effort reduce teenage pregnancy and provide the support needed till they graduate. Program focused on teaching self-esteem , abstinence education, how to make healthy decisions and provided sexual transmitted disease information. People skills were taught to help overcome negative peer pressure. Targeted participants were boys and girls in 6-12th grade; pregnant prevention for middle and high school students and teen mothers. 1 Codes: ? Brief description of your role in the project. Goals and Objectives of the program. Specific targets or audience for the program 9:5 Trained staff-teacher for over 10years with the program. Program goal��… (200:698) – D 9: case 3 Trained staff-teacher for over 10years with the program. Program goals and objectives were to encourage healthy and safe relationships for participants to be responsible in making good decisions. Program was to empower young people to make safe and positive choices including avoiding pregnancy, choosing abstinence, overcome peer pressure in there early ages. Program followed in-school based curriculum \’Choosing The Best Journey\’ . The targeted participants often started with the 9th graders. 1 Codes: ? Brief description of your role in the project. Goals and Objectives of the program. Specific targets or audience for the program 10:5 Trained staff-teacher for over 23 years with the program. Program goa���… (200:525) – D 10: case 4 Trained staff-teacher for over 23 years with the program. Program goals and objectives were to teach and provide parenting support and education to the participants. Teenage mothers are a high risk of potential child abuse if uneducated or unsupported. Targeted participants were middle and high schools students in schools. 1 Codes: ? Brief description of your role in the project. Goals and Objectives of the program. Specific targets or audience for the program ? Gender 4 Quotations: 7:4 F (66:66) – D 7: case 1 F 1 Codes: ? Gender 8:4 F (69:69) – D 8: case 2 F 1 Codes: ? Gender 9:4 F (69:69) – D 9: case 3 F 1 Codes: ? Gender 10:4 F (69:69) – D 10: case 4 F 1 Codes: ? Gender ? How did the program encourage and foster individual self-efficacy? 4 Quotations: 7:9 There were different agencies and professional guests that came and s��… (2844:3362) – D 7: case 1 There were different agencies and professional guests that came and spoke with participants. The messages capitalized on participants interests and encouragement. Participants understood completing their education would be better their education. The importance of education by observing the speakers helped them build self confidence. Once they knew their children are well taken care off, their confidence and new learned skills tremendously helped them focus and took control to accomplish their education. 1 Codes: ? How did the program encourage and foster individual self-efficacy? 8:9 Participants were provided with rich and positive educational informat���… (2918:3344) – D 8: case 2 Participants were provided with rich and positive educational information on pregnancy prevention that tremendously change their beliefs and behaviors towards sexual behaviors. Outside influence guests sharing their experiences motivating participants, and encouragements from others helped participants shape their behaviors and stayed in their programs without getting pregnant and graduating in large numbers every year. 1 Codes: ? How did the program encourage and foster individual self-efficacy? 9:9 Participants often met in small group setting after school for an hour���… (2460:2972) – D 9: case 3 Participants often met in small group setting after school for an hour were they were encourage to share with each other their experiences and how they felt about the program. This environment with few people was designed for participants to feel free and have less fear which allowed them to be open . Outside the program group communications, and encouragements from others, helped participants shape their behaviors producing positive skills. Participants stayed in their program and successfully graduated. 1 Codes: ? How did the program encourage and foster individual self-efficacy? 10:9 Participants were split into smaller groups where individual experienc…… (2215:2694) – D 10: case 4 Participants were split into smaller groups where individual experiences were shared intimately. The comfortable setting allowed them to open up, listened to each other and related to others experiences. Outside the program groups communications, and encouragements from others helped participants shape their behaviors towards shaping their future and producing successful stories of their own. Participants stayed in their program till they graduated without getting pregnant. 1 Codes: ? How did the program encourage and foster individual self-efficacy? ? Location 4 Quotations: 7:2 Director\’s office (23:39) – D 7: case 1 Director\’s office 1 Codes: ? Location 8:2 Director\’s office (23:39) – D 8: case 2 Director\’s office 1 Codes: ? Location 9:2 Director\’s office (23:39) – D 9: case 3 Director\’s office 1 Codes: ? Location 10:2 Director\’s office (23:39) – D 10: case 4 Director\’s office 1 Codes: ? Location ? Overall, how effective was the program in reducing pregnancy rates among teenage girls in the county? 4 Quotations: 7:10 Pregnancy rate may be reducing nationally, there is still a lot that��… (3466:4048) – D 7: case 1 Pregnancy rate may be reducing nationally, there is still a lot that need to be done. The program is working as expected as more of the participants graduating. Each semester 18 students are enrolled with 12-15 graduating per year. The program can not do it alone, more organizations, community, religious groups and schools need to play a bigger role. No one wants to talk about the teen pregnancy issues and that becomes a challenge. These participants are only with the program for few hours and the rest of the time are with families and if no one is talking about the issue. 1 Codes: ? Overall, how effective was the program in reducing pregnancy rates among teenage girls in the county? 8:10 Programs are effective because participants stayed until they gradua��… (3448:3760) – D 8: case 2 Programs are effective because participants stayed until they graduated, Participants graduated in good numbers that were even 20% higher than the local schools. The program\’s reduction on teen pregnancy benefited those enrolled and not the whole county. For those participating , the results are impressive. 1 Codes: ? Overall, how effective was the program in reducing pregnancy rates among teenage girls in the county? 9:10 The program was very effective to those who participated in the progra…… (3076:3540) – D 9: case 3 The program was very effective to those who participated in the program. The new knowledge and skills acquired helped them remain abstinence and graduated in excellent numbers. As for the county, it was hard to tell since many schools and other areas of the community centers no longer have funding for these type of programs. Resources are scares and community or family support has caused teen pregnancy prevention programs stop or impact their success results. 1 Codes: ? Overall, how effective was the program in reducing pregnancy rates among teenage girls in the county? 10:10 The program proved to be very effective as long as students stayed co…… (2798:3346) – D 10: case 4 The program proved to be very effective as long as students stayed committed in the program and fully participated, stayed abstinence and graduated. As for the county, the program is only reaching to those participating in the program. Many schools and communities no longer have funding for these type of programs. Resources are scares and that has put stress to the counties to have more success rates. Community, religious and family support does not exist to the expectation impacting teen pregnancy prevention programs success stories. 1 Codes: ? Overall, how effective was the program in reducing pregnancy rates among teenage girls in the county? ? Participant 4 Quotations: 7:1 1 (12:12) – D 7: case 1 1 1 Codes: ? Participant 8:1 2 (12:12) – D 8: case 2 2 1 Codes: ? Participant 9:1 3 (12:12) – D 9: case 3 3 1 Codes: ? Participant 10:1 4 (12:12) – D 10: case 4 4 1 Codes: ? Participant ? What lessons for the future did you learn from working on this particular pregnancy prevention program? 4 Quotations: 7:11 Lessons learned are that for the programs to be successful, if more sc…… (4154:4629) – D 7: case 1 Lessons learned are that for the programs to be successful, if more schools would have same programs available to students would help. If churches, communities talk and other sectors where these children are growing up in such as sexual education, and birth control preventions would huge in contributing to the high teen pregnancy issue. The other lesson is that without solid resources, there are challenges to preventing teenage pregnancy to the degree it should happen. 1 Codes: ? What lessons for the future did you learn from working on this particular pregnancy prevention program? 8:11 Lessons for the future, as long as there is someone teaching or helpi���… (3866:4337) – D 8: case 2 Lessons for the future, as long as there is someone teaching or helping empower teenagers with good information to prevent pregnancy, there will be great results. The hindering factor is funding, with no funding these programs will not be successful. Lack of support from the communities, families and religious sectors will not help the programs succeed to the expected results. Without support from the whole sectors, the future of the phenomenon will remain an issue. 1 Codes: ? What lessons for the future did you learn from working on this particular pregnancy prevention program? 9:11 Programs will be very successfully but without needed resources such a…… (3646:4041) – D 9: case 3 Programs will be very successfully but without needed resources such as funding and support of the community, religious sectors and families, teen pregnancy will remain an issue. Its almost as if no-one wants to talk about teenage pregnancy and teen sexual behaviors. All hands from different sectors are needed to better facilitate and tackle reduction of teen pregnancy rate and child births. 1 Codes: ? What lessons for the future did you learn from working on this particular pregnancy prevention program? 10:11 Program will be very successfully as long as there is someone teaching…… (3452:3904) – D 10: case 4 Program will be very successfully as long as there is someone teaching or helping with the necessary information there will be great success stories. Funds being the huge effect, is the biggest issue that will hinder the success of teen pregnancy preventions to succeed. Lacking the funding and support of the community, religion and families, teen pregnancy prevention will remain an issue even though they may be down in the counties and country. 1 Codes: ? What lessons for the future did you learn from working on this particular pregnancy prevention program? ? What new knowledge and skills did the program provide to influence participants pregnancy prevention behavior? What opportunities did the program provide for participants to observe healthy behaviors in themselves and other people? 4 Quotations: 7:8 Participants gained knowledge and good parenting skills to take care…… (2399:2775) – D 7: case 1 Participants gained knowledge and good parenting skills to take care of their babies. Participants were provided with coaching development skills to continue with their education. Different agencies and outside professionals were invited to come and teach different set of skills and education that helped them stay in school and get their education to better their future. 1 Codes: ? What new knowledge and skills did the program provide to influence participants pregnancy prevention behavior? What opportunities did the program provide for participants to observe healthy behaviors in themselves and other people? 8:8 Participants were taught and were well equipped with important informa���… (2522:2849) – D 8: case 2 Participants were taught and were well equipped with important information that helped prevent getting pregnant. Empowering participants with good information contributed to healthy behaviors. Participants and fully participation and understanding of the program helped them change their behaviors stayed away from having sex. 1 Codes: ? What new knowledge and skills did the program provide to influence participants pregnancy prevention behavior? What opportunities did the program provide for participants to observe healthy behaviors in themselves and other people? 9:8 Teaching with positive messages and making sure participants unders…��� (2019:2391) – D 9: case 3 Teaching with positive messages and making sure participants understood the program messages to where they stayed in the program or the end showed the program provided knew knowledge and skills. Having the students from not knowing much about teen pregnancy prevention to knowing and embracing the information, that change in behavior alone was very beneficial to them. 1 Codes: ? What new knowledge and skills did the program provide to influence participants pregnancy prevention behavior? What opportunities did the program provide for participants to observe healthy behaviors in themselves and other people? 10:8 Teaching and equipping students with important information that helped…… (1846:2146) – D 10: case 4 Teaching and equipping students with important information that helped to prevent from getting pregnant allowed students to change their behavior . Students avoided sex and stayed abstinent to the end. Participants fully participated and by understanding the program helped them make positive changes. 1 Codes: ? What new knowledge and skills did the program provide to influence participants pregnancy prevention behavior? What opportunities did the program provide for participants to observe healthy behaviors in themselves and other people? ? What was the message that the program had to put out to the target audience? How was the message communicated and did message reach intended audience? Where there any challenges encountered and how they were resolved? 4 Quotations: 7:6 The message was that the school program was available to help teenager���… (871:1566) – D 7: case 1 The message was that the school program was available to help teenagers contribute their education and graduate. Becoming pregnant was not the end of their education. Instead of returning to the sane school where a burden of fear of embarrassment, this was a place to become a role model for the better. Message was communicated in various ways, in-schools, brochures, home visits, web as well community outreach to reach out to many targeted participants. The challenge that was encountered was transportation as many participants didn\’t have personal transport. The school is non-funded to have schools buses as such many were not able to enroll or if enrolled, they were forced to drop out. 1 Codes: ? What was the message that the program had to put out to the target audience? How was the message communicated and did message reach intended audience? Where there any challenges encountered and how they were resolved? 8:6 Programs worked mainly with enrolled schools students so message was p���… (1150:1713) – D 8: case 2 Programs worked mainly with enrolled schools students so message was passed through classroom settings. Message easily reached all the intended audiences. Challenges faced were due to parents or guardians refuse to grant permission by not signing the consent form. The program required parents permission to participate in the programs. Programs were classroom based and there were support groups that met in-school or during school days, If parents refused to grant the student permission , then the students were not permitted to attend any of the programs. . 1 Codes: ? What was the message that the program had to put out to the target audience? How was the message communicated and did message reach intended audience? Where there any challenges encountered and how they were resolved? 9:6 The program was offered to already enrolled students and message was…… (920:1221) – D 9: case 3 The program was offered to already enrolled students and message was relayed in the school curriculum and classroom setting. The challenges faced were parents or guardians not granting the students permission to participate in the program. If no permission was granted, students did not participate. 1 Codes: ? What was the message that the program had to put out to the target audience? How was the message communicated and did message reach intended audience? Where there any challenges encountered and how they were resolved? 10:6 Programs worked directly with enrolled schools students and message wa…… (747:1104) – D 10: case 4 Programs worked directly with enrolled schools students and message was conveyed through the classroom settings. Students were encouraged to attend . Message reached all the intended participants. The challenge faced was if the student wanted to participate but the parent/guardian refused to sign the consent form giving student permission to participate. 1 Codes: ? What was the message that the program had to put out to the target audience? How was the message communicated and did message reach intended audience? Where there any challenges encountered and how they were resolved? ? What were the participants’ beliefs and expectations about pregnancy prevention? What were the program’s expectations about participants’ belief before participating in the program? 4 Quotations: 7:7 Many of the participants came knowing the program does work. Their exp���… (1751:2163) – D 7: case 1 Many of the participants came knowing the program does work. Their expectations were so on their babies well-being while they attended their classes. The program expectations was that participants stay in school and graduate and not get pregnant. Participants were required to sign a contract , follow the rules and to make sure to stay in communication if any issues arose that prevented them to come to class. 1 Codes: ? What were the participants’ beliefs and expectations about pregnancy prevention? What were the program’s expectations about participants’ belief before participating in the program? 8:7 Participants had no knowledge of the programs nor what to expect. Prog���… (1898:2286) – D 8: case 2 Participants had no knowledge of the programs nor what to expect. Programs were offered during school hours and after school groups at the center. Most students took the programs as part of another school class till they were enrolled and participated and begin to understand how beneficial the information was to them. The program expected all participants fully participate to the end. 1 Codes: ? What were the participants’ beliefs and expectations about pregnancy prevention? What were the program’s expectations about participants’ belief before participating in the program? 9:7 Students expectation were none because to them participating in the pr���… (1406:1783) – D 9: case 3 Students expectation were none because to them participating in the program was just another class they had to take. The program expected students to fully participate and engage by taking the program seriously to their own benefits. The program also expected parents and guardians to give permission for the students to take advantage of the information program was providing. 1 Codes: ? What were the participants’ beliefs and expectations about pregnancy prevention? What were the program’s expectations about participants’ belief before participating in the program? 10:7 The student expectations were none to them it was just another class t…… (1289:1610) – D 10: case 4 The student expectations were none to them it was just another class they had to take. The program expected students to fully participate and engage by taking the program seriously to their own benefits. The program also expected parents and guardians to grant students permission to enroll and participate in the program.

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