Table of Contents
Does gender inequality reduce growth and development in India?. 3
Goals and objectives. 4
Interesting results. 4
Main results. 5
Model techniques. 7
Justify argument. 8
Developing countries, India included have been seen to show a significant disparity and inequality with regard to education, employment opportunities and medical facilities. This I supported by the fact that school girls and women suffer most from high-death rates, discrepancies in school attendance, and limited job opportunities. The inequality is extremely severe to the extent that women are paid meagerly and this has played a significant role in the over al poor performance of the Indian economy. The ability to make the aforementioned conclusions depends on one’s ability to distinguish inherent and instrumental factors that perpetuate the vice. The effect of education to the economy must be viewed in the long-term perspective and this illustrates how well the effect of gender inequality may have on the economy. While appreciating the fact that gender equity has a significant impact when developmental goals are being set it is necessary for India and other developing countries to bridge of gender imbalance. This will enable it to utilize the human resources that are provided by women, which may not in many instances be provided well by men. This can be done by addressing the issue of school attendance and improving health circumstances that may help reduce the current high mortality rate (Roy & Chatterjee, 2006).
This study is solely carried with intent to raise concern over the ever-skyrocketing levels of gender inequality in India. By addressing these issues, it will be much simpler to address issues that can spur economic growth. In order to achieve this, one has to appreciate the fact that healthy and educated populations play critical roles in facilitating economic growth and development. It is a fact that gender inequality contributes substantially in the reduction of economic growth. Consequently, longevity, increased access to educational resources, and the decrease in poverty levels are parameters that can be used to indicate that there is an aspect of economic growth within a country. This validates the need to justify that failure to address all issues related to gender inequality might act as barriers to economic growth and development.
This study is purposely carried in order to assess a number of factors that play a significant role in affecting the performance of any economy. By so doing, the study will identify the reasons as to why addressing gender-related issues contribute much in influencing economic development and growth. This study will also seek to appreciate the need of having an economy that has balanced demand of labor force and education and the resultant effect on education. The other objective that warrants this study is to explain why poor education systems are inherent in less developed countries. The consequent objective is identifying the role that the government can play in enhancing the efficiency of economic growth (Drèze & Sen, 2002).
Interesting results indicate that education and health are the main pillars of economic development for any developing nation. This is supported by the fact that greater health capital improves the returns that are felt in the educational sector. These will in turn diminish the returns on investment that is consequently felt in the educational sector. It is also necessary to note that increasing incomes is not sufficient alone to spur economic growth alone unless the mothers are educated and adequate policy actions are in place. This means that if children are prevented from going to school with the intentions of raising family income, it is not always a guarantee that there will be improved standards of living. Preliminary results also9 indicate that child labor is widespread in developing countries and this predisposes them to factors that result in high mortality (Roy & Chatterjee, 2006).
While trying to find out the effects that gender inequality has on economic development has in Indian economy, the answers to the aims to the aims to the objectives have to be provided. These will widen the scope of understanding the fact that gender inequality in terms of access to education and health facilities contributes a lot in the failing of an economy. When the government avail high-health capital to both genders, the result is improved returns in investment in the educational sector. The consequence is improved performance in the overall economy because appropriate health facilities enhance the length of life that one lives. Further to this, better health standards because of government interventions reduce the rate at which depreciation occurs within an economy. Additionally, results indicate that investing in education brings about increased returns in investments in health because the skills learned at school will be adequately applied. Personal hygiene, basic literacy, and the formation and training of personnel are all achieved because of formal educational systems (United Nations, 2001).
In an economy that is faced with widespread issues relating to gender inequality, increasing is not a sufficient method of improving the educational and health status of the citizens. Income may increase but if this is not directly channeled in improving the health and educational status, it is not a guarantee that an economy with grow and develop. It has been found that an increase in income of inhabitants within a developing makes them switch diets and spend much of non-nutritious foods.
It is essential for India as a developing nation to bridge educational gender gap for women as a solution to spurring economic development. From the research, we find that the rate of return of women’s education is higher than that of men. Additionally, by giving women the chance to access education as men, the productivity does not only increase but it also results in increased labor force and later marriage. The results also extend to include lower fertility and improved child’s health and nutrition. This justifies the need for a developing nation like India to bridge the gender gap. The multiplier effects that result from improved child’s health and nutrition become unprecedented and this improves the quality of the general economy. By bridging the gender gap though the provision of equal educational opportunities, the vicious cycle of poverty is broken.
The bridging of the gender gap through the expansion of educational opportunities contributes to economic growth and development in a number of ways. This is possible through the creation of a more productive labor force through the inculcation of knowledge and skills. Additionally, the opportunities provide employment avenues that generate income to teachers, school and workers in the construction field. This extends to include textbooks, paper printers, and school uniform manufacturers. The benefits of bridging the gap also create a class of educated leaders in an economy and this will help in filling the gaps by departing expatriates in various government institutions. Additionally, closing the gender gap is also beneficial to a developing economy like India because it helps in creating some form of harmony amongst its citizens. This happens when educational institutions promote the sharing of literacy and other literacy skills (United Nations, 2010).
In order to achieve the desired results for this study, it is necessary to employ valuable research methods, which can guarantee valuable results. For this study, the use of questionnaires is appropriate. This is because of the fact that they are easy to administer and questions are straightforward just as they are stated in the objectives. While being administered in India, the questionnaire will have various questions that will seek to identify the causes, effects and remedies that can be put in place in order to alleviate gender disparity. The sectors that have been affected much by gender inequality. Some personal interviews can also be administered but though in minimal numbers.
After the process of data collection, further analysis will be done in order to ensure that tenable conclusions are drawn. This may involve the use of secondary sources from the library where information regarding the negative effects of gender inequality can be obtained. The supply and demand of education in a political economy will also be discussed adequately. This will be helpful in creating the understanding of the effects of gender inequality to the Indian economy. The success of this study will be achieved upon the realization of the gender inequality. The parameters that will be used to represent the larger potion of the economy are education and access to quality healthcare services.
From the study, we can appreciate the sad reality that gender inequality affects the general performance of an economy. From the analysis, we find that gender inequality affects two drivers of the economy; education and health. If the effects are not addressed in time, they create a vicious cycle that affects the general performance of the economy.
There are a number of models that are employed in order to explain the effect that gender inequality has on education and consequently the whole economy of India. The overlapping generations’ model is based on the argument that the initial gender especially in the educational and health sector results in a vicious cycle where problems are inherently experienced. The inability of the Indian government to close the gender inequality gap results in a continuous perpetuation of poverty and other problems that may become hard to tackle if not addressed with urgency.
The empirical model may also be used to explain the effects of gender inequality to the economy of a developing country. In this case, parameters like corruption, political instability and quality of services offered by public services institutions may be taken into consideration. This will also extend to include parameters related to GDP as a determinant of economic growth and development. It will obviously be found out that areas with high gender disparity will have lower economic growth than areas that have embraced gender equality.
There are various reasons that justify the need to bridge the gap between men and women any economy especially in the less developed countries. First, it is an accepted fact that the cost primary education for the poor students is inherently higher than those from poor families. Additionally, the benefits of primary education for the poor students are low and this gives them every reason to drop out from school whenever they feel like doing so. This shows that students finishing elementary literacy levels to the university are those from affluent families. Therefore, any form of government to subsidize the tuition fees may be viewed as a form of free education but in the real sense, it is not because it benefits only the rich. This calls for the bridging of the gap between the two genders in order to achieve optimal economic growth (United Nations, 2001).
This study is also justified in the sense that it makes us understand the fact that average heath levels may mask considerable inequality in the health sector. This calls for the Indian government to bridge the gap in order to ensure that all people can access quality health services. For instance, infant mortality rates for minority groups are usually high than those who have access to quality health services. This also translates to the life expectancy where it has been found to be relatively lower in those populations, which do not access quality healthcare. When evaluating economic performance in this scenario, one will find out that the less affluent are significantly less healthy courtesy of parity in access to income and education (Drèze & Sen, 2002).
From the foregoing, it is apparently clear that gender inequality contributes much in the ailing of Indian economy. This phenomenon affects the economy directly, affects education, and the quality of healthcare services. By affecting education, gender inequality ensures that less number of women are able to have access to quality education. This will ultimately reduce the number of quality skilled and skilled workforce resulting in the under performance of an economy. When few individuals can, access education there is a high chance that the other segment of the economy will be affected due to inherent demographic effects. Women who have gone to school gone to school may gain knowledge of how to care for their children because of nutritious food. If this is not done, there will be high mortality rate and the consequent reduction of labor force. This affects the economy negatively. The inequality in employment opportunities and access to technological information play a critical role in the deterioration of the economy.
Gender inequality also plays a significant role in fertility and child mortality. This is because of the fact that the bargaining power of significantly reduced to the extent that their opportunity cost is diminished. By denying the women the chance to learn, it is a clear indication that they will lack the knowledge and ability to care for the children. This will obviously result in the poor performance of the economy in question. It is therefore necessary for the Indian government to address the issue of gender inequality in order for it to enjoy the full performance of the economy. This also applies to other economies, which have gender inequality as a culture (United Nations, 2010).
Life Expectancy at Birth (in years) in Selected States of India
State Male Female Total
Andhra Pradesh 61.2 63.5 62.4
Assam 56.6 57.1 56.7
Bihar 60.4 58.4 59.6
Gujarat 60.9 62.9 61.9
Haryana 63.7 64.6 64.1
Karnataka 61.6 64.9 63.3
Kerala 70.4 75.9 73.3
All India 60.4 61.8 61.1
Drèze, J. & Sen, A. (2002). India: development and participation. Oxford University Press.
Roy, K. & Chatterjee, S. (2006). Readings in world development: growth and development in the Asia Pacific. Nova Publishers.
United Nations. (2010). Combating poverty and inequality. United Nations Publications.
World Bank. (2001). The World Bank Research Program 2001: Abstracts of Current Studies. World Bank Publications
World Bank. (2010). Gender and Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 2002-08 Independent Evaluation Group Studies. World Bank Publications
Lakshmana, C. M. (2007). Demographic Change And Gender Inequality: A Comparative Study Of Madhya Pradesh And Karnataka. Institute for Social and Economic Change. Working paper