Exam In this exam you are asked to think critically and analytically about globalization, “soft power,” NGOs, and world order. You are also asked to relate the concept of world order to both Marxism and constructivism. You will be graded on the quality of your reasoning, clarity of expression, and ability to apply international relations theory to historical cases and abstract scenarios. There are six parts to the exam. You must answer all parts of a question to receive full credit for that section. Soft Power (1.5 Pages) What is “soft power”? How do proponents of using “soft power” argue that the U.S. should address the increasing economic and military growth of China?
Does “soft power” represent the U.S.’ best “big picture” foreign policy strategy over the next several decades? Sources: Soft Power  Joseph S. Nye, “The Changing Nature of Power.”  Richard N. Haass, “The Age of Nonpolarity.” Non-State Actors (1.5-2 Pages) Non-government organizations (NGOs) and private military and security companies (PMSCs) each receive funding from different types of sources.
Explain the different sources and types of financial support these groups receive. How is the source of their funds likely to influence their behavior? In general, are the services that these types of non-state organizations provide superior to the level of service that could be provided by governments? Sources : Notes:
NGOs  Michael Barnett, “Humanitarianism Transformed.” Private Military and Security Companies  Peter Singer, “Corporate Warriors.”  Allison Stanger and Mark Williams, “Benefits and Costs of Outsourcing Security.” Marxism and Constructivism (2 Pages) Marxism and constructivism present a critique of current world order and a vision of alternate global orders. Describe the critique that constructivism makes of realism and balance orders. Is this a valid criticism? Why or why not? Describe the appraisal that Marxism makes of liberal, “consent” based world order.
Is this a valid condemnation? Why or why not? Finally, are the alternative world orders presented by these theories realistic? Explain?’ Marxism and World-Systems Theory  William I. Robinson, “Gramsci and Globalization.”  Walter L. Goldfrank, “The Rules of Wallerstein’s World-Systems Method.” Constructivism  Stephen Brooks and William Wohlforth, “Constructivism and the Constraint of Legitimacy.” Chapter 6 in World Out of Balance  Alexander Wendt, “Why a World State is Inevitable.” Earth in 2113 (1.5 pages) Welcome to Earth in 2113!
Some features of this hypothetical future are better than things are today: war between states has not occurred for over a century, intrastate violence is also relatively rare, global economic growth has lifted billions of people out of poverty, over 95 percent of states are democratic (however China is still not a democracy). Unfortunately, humankind still faces severe challenges: global warming is occurring and there is no way to alter its harmful effects in the short-term, the global population is 12 billion and growing, and a recent global flu pandemic that originated in Turkmenistan has killed millions in Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia.
In this global system, power is distributed between 6 major actors and their power can be expressed by a single number. U.S. = 30; India = 20; China = 50; Corporation X = 15; Corporation Y = 15; NGO Z = 10 What type of system is this? What type of order will emerge from this system? Why? Based on the order that emerges, what are the chances that the major challenges faced by humanity can be addressed? Source: Richard N. Haass, “The Age of Nonpolarity.” Christopher Layne, “The End of Pax Americana.” Available at the following link:http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/04/the-end-of-pax-americana-how-western-decline-became-inevitable/256388/?single_page=true
Citations: If you quote an author directly, you must use quotation marks around his/her words and footnote the quotation (including the page number). Do not use block quotes (long quotations) in your paper.
Quotes should be no more than 2 lines and there should be no more than 4 direct quotations in your paper. If you paraphrase another author’s words or use an idea or argument that another author has made, you must use a footnote. In general, paraphrasing is a bad idea and risks becoming plagiarism. You do not have to use ALL the citations just make sure you answer EACH QUESTION CLEARLY and provide reasoning for your answers based on empirical data or citation

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