Public Sector vs. Private Sector Administration

Managing Out: The (Australian) Public Sector In The Community Write an essay on Managing Out: The (Australian) Public Sector in The Community, in two parts:

For this milestone, submit a rough draft of your final project white paper. Include all the required elements of the final paper and incorporate any relevant instructor feedback you received on Milestones One and Two.
In your rough draft, be sure to address all the following critical elements:
I. Introduction
Concisely describe your chosen organizational, legal, or cultural challenge in the field of public administration.
II. Theoretical Overview: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.
A. Public Administration Advocates: Describe the original advocates for the development of professional public management within the federal government of the United States. In your description, consider questions such as these: What were their viewpoints? How did they advocate for the development of public administration?
B. Impact on Public Administration: Differentiate between the views of Dwight Waldo and Herbert Simon. How did each impact the development of the public administration profession?
C. Public Administration Dichotomy: Analyze the founding dichotomy of public administration as expressed by Dwight Waldo for its impact on public administration practice.
III. Public Administration in Practice
A. Governmental Operations: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.
1. Civil Service Implementation: Assess the impact that the implementation of civil service had on the effectiveness of public service in the federal government.
2. Local Governmental Operations: Illustrate how public administration has manifested itself in local governmental operations. In other words, what impact has professional management had on local governmental operations? For example, you could consider how prevalent the mayor/manager form of government is.
3. Impact of Iron Triangle: Assess the impact of the “iron triangle” on public policy and program administration at the state and federal levels of government. In other words, how does the bureaucracy counterbalance the direct relationship between special interests and the legislature?

B. Differences Between Public Administration and Private Sector Management: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.
1. Organizational Differences: Contrast the impact of political boundaries in governmental operations versus the private sector. For example, you could consider how political boundaries impact program and operational efficiencies. Provide specific examples to support your response.

Legal Differences: Analyze mandates, legal and nonlegal, related to the challenge you selected. How do they impact the operations of state and local governments? How do these mandates apply to private sector firms? Provide specific examples to support your response.
3. Cultural Differences: Illustrate the impacts politics can have on administrative appointments in the public and private sectors. In other words, what is the impact of political appointments on the culture of governmental agencies and private businesses? Provide specific examples to support your response.

C. Roles of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that
you selected.
1. Executive Branch: Outline the role of the executive branch of government in the development of public policy, specifically related to the challenge you selected.
2. Legislative Branch: Outline the role of the legislative branch of government in the development of public policy, specifically related to the challenge you selected.
3. Judicial Branch: What role does the court system play in arbitrating public policy disputes between the executive and legislative branches of government? Focus specifically on how the judicial branch has impacted the challenge you selected.
D. Public Budgeting Techniques: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.
1. Zero-Based Budgeting: Assess the principle of zero-based budgeting for how it has impacted federal programs and their stakeholders. What are the pros and cons of this methodology?
2. Performance-Based Budgeting: Assess how performance-based budgeting applies to private sector budgeting practices in a public sector setting. What are the pros and cons of this methodology? Include the impact on public programs and their stakeholders in your response.
3. Emerging Budget Strategies: Describe emerging budget strategies being utilized by public agencies to address the difficult fiscal environment facing local governments. In other words, what contemporary public budgeting techniques are effective?

E. Governmental Communication Strategies: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.
1. Impact of Social Media: Assess the effectiveness of social media on governmental operations at the federal, state, or local governmental level. Consider questions such as these: What impact has social media had in enhancing public outreach? How has social media been used to develop a sense of community?
2. Impact of Other Media Types: Assess how various other media types can enhance public outreach and impact a citizen’s sense of community.
3. Communication Strategies: How has the proliferation of information outlets impacted the communication strategies utilized by government officials?

Please note that the rubric for the rough draft is not identical to the Final Project Rubric. The Final Project Rubric will include an Exemplary category, which
provides guidance as to how you can go above and beyond the Proficient category in your final submission.
Guidelines for Submission: Your draft should be 15–20 pages in length and should use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins.
You should use APA guidelines for your cover page, in-text citations, and reference list.
Instructor Feedback: This activity uses an integrated rubric in Blackboard. Students can view instructor feedback in the Grade Center. For more information,
review these instructions.
Critical Elements Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (80%) Not Evident (0%) Value
Introduction Concisely describes selected
organizational, legal, or cultural
challenge in public administration

Describes selected organizational, legal,
or cultural challenge in public
administration, but description is
wordy or vague

Does not describe selected organizational,
legal, or cultural challenge in public
administration

4.1

Theoretical Overview:
Public Administration
Advocates

Describes original advocates for
development of professional public
management in federal government of
United States

Describes original advocates for
development of professional public
management in federal government of
United States, but with gaps in clarity
or detail

Does not describe original advocates for
development of professional public
management in federal government of
United States, or description lacks focus
on selected challenge

5.1

Theoretical Overview:
Impact on Public
Administration

Differentiates between the views of
Dwight Waldo and Herbert Simon for
how they impacted the development of
the public administration profession

Differentiates between the views of
Dwight Waldo and Herbert Simon for
how they impacted the development of
the public administration profession,
but with gaps in accuracy or detail

Does not differentiate between the views
of Dwight Waldo and Herbert Simon for
how they impacted the development of
the public administration profession, or
response lacks focus on selected challenge
5.1

Theoretical Overview:
Public Administration
Dichotomy

Analyzes founding dichotomy of public
administration as expressed by Dwight
Waldo for its impact on public
administrative practice

Analyzes founding dichotomy of public
administration as expressed by Dwight
Waldo for its impact on public
administrative practice, but with gaps
in accuracy or detail

Does not analyze founding dichotomy of
public administration as expressed by
Dwight Waldo for its impact on public
administrative practice, or analysis lacks
focus on selected challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Civil Service
Implementation

Assesses the impact that the
implementation of civil service had on
the effectiveness of public service in
the federal government

Assesses the impact that the
implementation of civil service had on
the effectiveness of public service in
the federal government, but
assessment is cursory or inaccurate

Does not assess the impact that the
implementation of civil service had on the
effectiveness of public service in the
federal government, or assessment lacks
focus on selected challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Local
Governmental Operations

Illustrates how public administration
has manifested itself in local
governmental operations

Illustrates how public administration
has manifested itself in local
governmental operations, but with
gaps in clarity or detail

Does not illustrate how public
administration has manifested itself in
local governmental operations, or
response lacks focus on selected challenge
5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Impact of Iron
Triangle

Assesses impact of iron triangle on
public policy and program
administration at state and federal
levels of government

Assesses impact of iron triangle on
public policy and program
administration at state and federal
levels of government, but assessment is
cursory or inaccurate

Does not assess impact of iron triangle on
public policy and program administration
at state and federal levels of government,
or response lacks focus on selected
challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Organizational
Differences

Contrasts impact of political boundaries
in governmental operations versus the
private sector, supporting response
with specific examples

Contrasts impact of political boundaries
in governmental operations versus the
private sector, but with gaps in
accuracy, detail, or support

Does not contrast impact of political
boundaries in governmental operations
versus the private sector, or response
lacks focus on selected challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Legal Differences

Analyzes legal and nonlegal mandates
related to selected challenges for how
they impact state and local government
operations and private sector firms,
supporting response with specific
examples

Analyzes legal and nonlegal mandates
related to selected challenges for how
they impact state and local government
operations and private sector firms, but
with gaps in accuracy, detail, or support

Does not analyze legal and nonlegal
mandates related to selected challenges
for how they impact state and local
government operations and private sector
firms, or response lacks focus on selected
challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Cultural
Differences

Illustrates impacts of politics on
administrative appointments in public
and private sectors, supporting
response with specific examples

Illustrates impacts of politics on
administrative appointments in public
and private sectors, but with gaps in
clarity, detail, or support

Does not illustrate impacts of politics on
administrative appointments in public and
private sectors, or response lacks focus on
selected challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Executive Branch

Outlines role of executive branch of
government in development of public
policy, specifically related to selected
challenge

Outlines role of executive branch of
government in development of public
policy, specifically related to selected
challenge, but with gaps in accuracy or
detail

Does not outline role of executive branch
of government in development of public
policy, or response lacks focus on selected
challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Legislative Branch

Outlines role of legislative branch of
government in development of public
policy, specifically related to selected
challenge

Outlines role of legislative branch of
government in development of public
policy, specifically related to selected
challenge, but with gaps in accuracy or
detail

Does not outline role of legislative branch
of government in development of public
policy, or response lacks focus on selected
challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Judicial Branch

Analyzes role of court system in
arbitrating public policy disputes
between executive and legislative
branches of government, specifically
related to selected challenge

Analyzes role of court system in
arbitrating public policy disputes
between executive and legislative
branches of government, specifically
related to selected challenge, but with
gaps in accuracy or detail

Does not analyze role of court system in
arbitrating public policy disputes between
executive and legislative branches of
government, or response lacks focus on
selected challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Zero-Based
Budgeting

Assesses principle of zero-based
budgeting for how it has impacted
federal programs and their
stakeholders and addresses pros and
cons of methodology

Assesses principle of zero-based
budgeting for how it has impacted
federal programs and their
stakeholders and addresses pros and
cons of methodology, but response is
cursory or inaccurate

Does not assess principle of zero-based
budgeting for how it has impacted federal
programs and their stakeholders, or
response lacks focus on selected challenge
5.1

Public Administration in

Practice: Performance-
Based Budgeting

Assesses how performance-based
budgeting applies to private sector
budgeting practices in public sector
setting and addresses pros and cons of
methodology and impact on public
programs and their stakeholders

Assesses how performance-based
budgeting applies to private sector
budgeting practices in public sector
setting and addresses pros and cons of
methodology and impact on public
programs and their stakeholders, but
response is cursory or inaccurate

Does not assess how performance-based
budgeting applies to private sector
budgeting practices in public sector
setting, or response lacks focus on
selected challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Emerging Budget
Strategies

Describes emerging budget strategies
being utilized by public agencies to
address the difficult fiscal environment
facing local governments

Describes emerging budget strategies
being utilized by public agencies to
address the difficult fiscal environment
facing local governments, but with gaps
in clarity or detail

Does not describe emerging budget
strategies being utilized by public agencies
to address the difficult fiscal environment
facing local governments, or response
lacks focus on selected challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Impact of Social
Media

Assesses the effectiveness of social
media on governmental operations at
federal, state, or local governmental
level

Assesses the effectiveness of social
media on governmental operations at
federal, state, or local governmental
level, but assessment is cursory or
inaccurate

Does not assess the effectiveness of social
media on governmental operations at
federal, state, or local governmental level,
or response lacks focus on selected
challenge

5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Impact of Other
Media Types

Assesses how various other media
types can enhance public outreach and
impact a citizen’s sense of community

Assesses how various other media
types can enhance public outreach and
impact a citizen’s sense of community,
but assessment is cursory or inaccurate

Does not assess how various other media
types can enhance public outreach and
impact a citizen’s sense of community, or
response lacks focus on selected challenge
5.1

Public Administration in
Practice: Communication
Strategies

Explains how proliferation of
information outlets has impacted
communication strategies utilized by
government officials

Explains how proliferation of
information outlets has impacted
communication strategies utilized by
government officials, but with gaps in
clarity or detail

Does not explain how proliferation of
information outlets has impacted
communication strategies utilized by
government officials, or response lacks
focus on selected challenge

5.1

Articulation of Response Submission has no major errors related
to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax,
or organization

Submission has major errors related to
citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or
organization that negatively impact
readability and articulation of main
ideas

Submission has critical errors related to
citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or
organization that prevent understanding
of ideas


1. The managing out imperative has changed the role and responsibilities of middle managers in the public sector. Identify the key factors that have produced a greater emphasis on building relationships within,between and ouside government agencies in the Australian public sector. From the key factors you have identified choose two on which to conduct a more in-depth analysis.
2. Identify the key differences in how contemporary public policy analysts understand the relationship between government agencies and citizens. From the differences you have identified choose two and conduct a more in-depth analysis on thoese two.
*** For key factors (part 1) and key differences (part 2): the list cannot be endless. Identify what you consider to be the highest priority or most significant factors and differences. Choose a few for inclusion in the essay and two for in depth analysis, explain why you consider them to be key.
*** For key differences (part2): identify and reference the contemporary public policy analysts. Analyse the effects of the differences and their impact of the public sector in Australia.
*** Do not use dot points
*** Use essay format with headings which act as pointers to the content and subsequent sections.
*** Allocate roughly the same weight to each of the two parts, that is about half of the word limit to each section, less introduction and conclusion.
References
Whelan, J. (2011).‘Guidelines for an aspiring premier’, The Drum, ABC, 22/6/11 [retrieved
PS News, (2011). ‘Reforms not over says DPMC Chief’ retrieved 20 May 2011, from
<http://www>.psnews.com.au/Page_psn264f1.html, 23 Verspaandonk, R., Holland, I. &
Horne, N.,
Department of Finance and Deregulation, (2011). ‘Government Business Enterprises’, Australian Government, retrieved 25 July 2011 
Australian Government, (2011). Budget 2011-2012: Taxation and Spending (Appendix G)

MacDermott, K., (2008). whatever happened to frank and fearless: The systems of New Public
Management and the ethos and behavior of the Australian Public Service, Democratic
Auditof Australia, Canberra.
Lewis, S., (2011). ‘$800m the high price of Rudd advice’, The Australian [retrieved 20 May
2011 
Donnell, H., & Trevett, C., (2011). ‘Public sector cuts ‘a necessity’, says English’, New
Zealand Herald, retrieved 22 June 2011 
MANAGING OUT: THE (AUSTRALIAN) PUBLIC SECTOR IN THE COMMUNIY 8
Donnelly, L., (2011). NHS fat cats earn more than David Cameron, The Telegraph (UK),
23/6/11 
Gallop, G., (2007), Agile Government Roundtable, Victorian State Services Authority,
Melbourne.
Meredyth, D. (2002). Managing out: The public sector in the community. Melbourne:
Learning Australia.

This is the completion of the final.   I added 3 pages for the editing of the paper and to meet professor’s expectations, which is:  “As a rough draft, this paper is meeting most expectations.  However, you need to make sure that you incorporate your topic more thoroughly into the narrative.  I have point many opportunities out in my comments.  Also, take a serious look at my comments about awkward and poorly worded sentences.  In many cases, I don’t know what you are trying to say.  Rework with an eye towards clarity and simplicity.  Finally, give specific, illustrative examples to demonstrate the validity of your key points.  You have the research…just incorporate it into the piece.”  

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