Part 1 – Annotated Bibliography (1 page) Please create annotated bibliography from the attached articles. Part 2 – Reflective Diary – Reflection on Cyber Ethics, Morality, and Law (2 pages minimum) Please create record of reflections about experiences, attitudes, opinions, and feelings in relation to the information technology (IT) and cyber ethics. Provide thoughts, feelings, ideas, and emotions. Please use attached articles and consider these ideas in regards of Reflection on Cyber Ethics, Morality, and Law : The impact of the regulation and governance of theInternet, free speech, and content controls. The ethical effects of intellectual property in cyberspace and regulation of Internet privacy. The ethical balances sought tosecure the electronic frontier.
Week Two Lecture
Business Research Methods and Tools
Week Two: Research Ethics and Research Design Hypothesis Testing
This week, you’ll learn more about the building blocks of business research. Last week’s
readings and guidance introduced you to the concept of hypotheses and research
questions. Let’s go into hypothesis testing a bit further. Let’s reconsider last week’s
sample research question: “Why are some of Ashford University’s students not
successful in school?” Assume that Ashford’s management noticed that not all students
are as successful as they would like them to be: some students fail courses, others drop
out, and so on. This is considered the problem they would like to solve with the
research. After some background evaluation, the administration develops a hypothesis
about the problem and the question: “Ashford students don’t succeed when they have
old computers.” The hypothesis states the problem (lack of student success) and an
“educated guess” about why the problem is happening (students have old computers).
In the research, Ashford’s administrators need to operationalize the study and test the
hypothesis; this means they need to do the research to find out whether their hypothesis
is correct. They could study it by sending a survey to students in order to find out how
old their computer is. They could give a new computer to some of the students with an
old computer, and they could not give a new computer to students with an old computer.
Then, the researchers could observe whether there is a difference between the old-
computer students and the new-computer students.
In this study, the “null hypothesis” would be: “There is no statistically significant
difference between the success of students with old computers and students with new
computers.” If the study found there is, in fact, no difference in the success of the two
groups, the researchers would fail to reject the null hypothesis. If there is a difference
between the two groups, the researchers would reject the null hypothesis.
The process of collecting data to observe differences might be new to you. Remember
that if you are not collecting data to answer a research question, you are not doing
original research. You might have thought previously that if you write a paper in which
you summarize what other researchers have done, then you are “doing research.”
That’s not true in this class. In business research, you go beyond summarizing others’
work; you’re making observations from data that are your own.
Research ethics
It’s important to make sure that whatever research you do that involves people, or data
from or about them, is conducted ethically. If research is ethical, it means (among other
things) that the researchers are protecting the privacy of the participants and any
research data collected about them.
In business settings, companies conduct research all the time to learn how to serve
customers better, how to increase profits, and so on. If you surveyed your customers
about their experience in your store using an online survey, it wouldn’t be ethical to
force them to provide their names and addresses. They might choose to provide their
names and contact information if they wanted you to follow up with them about a
negative experience in the store, but to protect their privacy, you should not demand
that information.
In university settings, ethics boards (also called Institutional Review Boards or IRBs)
review the plans for all the studies that involve human participants, such as people who
complete surveys or participate in interviews. The IRB’s main objective is to ensure the
safety, privacy, and confidentiality of participants. You can read about Ashford’s IRB at board.htm.
For viewing:
Altee, R. [Raj Altee]. (2009, June 16). Types of research & research designs — Rey
Ty (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [Video file]. Retrieved from

marianne102. (2009, December 8). Unethical research methods (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site. [Video file]. Retrieved from

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