Please write summary to the separated uploaded article. Also, please include answers to the below questions in the summary, thank you!:) 1. Who are slaves? How can we define the slave? What are differences between slave society and slave-owning society? 2. How the slave system had been justified or rationalized? – Ancient Greek philosophers – Confucian philosophers – Korean yangban slave holders (O Hwi-mun) – American slave holders before the Civil War 3. What were differences and similarities between Korean nobi and the slaves in the West? 4. The number of state-owned nobi as well as privately owned nobi declined greatly after the Japanese and Manchu invasions. What were minor and major causes for the great decline of nobi population in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Korea? Consider the following two types of measures in answering. Measures taken by the government Measures taken by nobi themselves. How were they effective? 5. What does Orlando Patterson mean by the slaveholder’s “ideological self-deception?” How did O Hwi-mun (a slaveholder) justify the nobi (slave) system in self-deceptive way? Could he be justified in accusing his slave Myongbok of being lazy? 6. Seen through a failed flight by Hanbok and Kangbi, what risks did the nobi take when attempting a flight? What were troubles and losses on the part of slaveholder? 7. It may well be almost impossible to reconstruct the full story behind the affair of Makchong, Songno, and Pun’gae on the basis of scanty and biased accounts of O Hwi-mun on their lives. Still, can we find some clues for the following questions; Why did Makchong collapse to the heartbreak at the betrayal of his wife? Why did Songno and Pun’gae venture to escape? Why was Pun’gae attracted to Songno? 8. Compare the life between solgo nobi (service nobi) and oego nobi (outside resident nobi), as gleaned from O Hwi-mun’s accounts.

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