The Role of Cyberspace in International Relations
Write a Literature review of the state of literature on the \”Role of Cyberspace in International Relations\” topic, which must include a variety of sources. You must have a mixture of academic/primary (at least 3) and secondary/supplementary sources. Ideally you should have 3-4 articles, or 1-2 books, or 1 book and 1-2 articles that deal with the theoretical or policy controversy that is the subject of this paper. All materials must be cited correctly (APA). It can be helpful to identify “schools of thought�� in your essay. The paper should be Double Spaced, 12 font.
International Political Economy and Economic Statecraft
The review should be 4-6 pages in length (typed,12 font, double spaced). It should consist of two parts: (1) a summary of the articles in question; and (2) your own thoughts of which articles are more or less correct or useful in dealing with this issue. You must cite the readings, when in doubt CITE! The articles to be reviewed are in the following book and pages:Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis, InternationalPolitics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues, 11th edition (Pearson, 2012). Robert Gilpin, “The Nature of Political Economy,” A&J, 265-81. Jeffrey Frankel, “Globalization of the Economy,” A&J, 305-21. Pankaj Ghemawat, “Why the World Isn’t Flat,” A&J 321-26. Moisés Naím, “What Globalization Is and Is Not?” A&J, 327.
Guideline for the thesis
I would like you to write the thesis based on the below information. ——–
Note that the thesis should be based on the attached format. I am attaching a format for the thesis.
The main questions of the research that thesis should be about are as follow;
The 1949 Geneva Conventions defines international armed conflicts (IACs) as armed conflicts “which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties” (1949 Geneva Conventions common article 2) and non-international armed conflicts (NIACs) as armed conflicts “not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties” (1949 Geneva Conventions common article 3).
For the first question you are asked to pick a conflict that, because of the setup of the belligerents, the geographical scope of the conflict, or the like; challenges this binary framework of IACs and NIACs. Please note that you may choose any past or present conflict. See the tips below
(((((((Tips: Afghanistan is a good option.
Afghanistan war 2001
In 2001, the Taliban controlled 90% of the Afghan territory, including the capital Kabul. Their government was however recognized as the government of Afghanistan only by Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates. Most other States recognized the Northern Alliance as the government of Afghanistan, which controlled some 10% of the Afghan territory. The Taliban and the Northern Alliance were engaged in an ongoing armed conflict against each other. On 11 September 2001, hijacked airplanes were launched by Al-Qaeda activists against the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington D.C. The head of Al-Qaeda, Usama Bin Laden, was in the Taliban controlled areas of Afghanistan. Despite extradition requests by the U.S. and the UN Security Council, the Taliban did not extradite Bin Laden to the US. The US therefore launched on 7 October 2001 air strikes against Afghanistan and US ground forces supporting forces of the Northern Alliance succeeded to gain control over most of the Afghan territory, including Kabul.
In 2002, a traditional Tribal Assembly (Loya Jirga) of Afghanistan elected Mr. Karzai as the president of Afghanistan, who continued fighting against the Taliban with the support of US and NATO forces.
- Is there an armed conflict?
- Which type of armed conflict: NIAC or IAC?
- Are the threshold levels fulfilled for this type of conflict?
- Are there different phases with different types of armed conflicts in the conflict?
- Mixed armed conflicts in any phase?
- Which are the parties to the conflict (in the different phases)?
- Are the persons/parties taking direct part in the hostilities privileged or unprivileged
I assume the answer
The war in Afghanistan is BOTH IAC and NIAC !
the differences is due of periods.. it was NIAC when Taliban were fighting and it become IAC when US intervene but US does not accept that it is IAC because the they should give to Taliban’s the status of prisoner of war.. Their rights … and should be released after war!
but as we see they don’t possess the status of POW prisoner of war.. and they are in jail even after the war finished the war also called INTERNATIONALIZED non armed conflict… so US accept this version
Apart from that particular problem, in certain contexts the fight against terrorism may also take the form of an armed conflict. That is the case when it results in a clash between States, as was the case when the United States of America attacked Afghanistan in October 2001. That fight may also be the equivalent of a classic (internationalized) non-international armed conflict, as was the case in Afghanistan from 19 June 2002 onwards, on which date a transition government was established. With the support of the international coalition, the newly estab- lished authorities were to deal with high-intensity fighting against organized non- government troops, i.e. those of the Taliban.
many scholars accept that the war in Afghanistan had 2 fases 1st it was NIAC, 2nd Internationalized non international armed conflict,, but many scholars argue that it was IAC because Taliban owned 80 % power over Afghanistan and were legitimate government on that period so when one country which is US fights against another government which is Taliban’s then it must be IAC
This information can be used in the thesis))))))))))))
The questions of the thesis should be this
Do the following:
1) Articulate the way in which the conflict you have chosen challenges the binary framework of IACs and NIACs
2) Determine if the normative framework of IACs or that of NIACs (or, indeed, both) govern the armed conflict and explain why?
3) Assuming your position on the normative framework governing the armed conflict: articulate the humanitarian law status of the belligerents and explain if individual belligerents or fighters can be charged with any crimes for their actions during the armed conflict, as a matter of international or domestic law.
To the extent this is of any relevance in answering this question, you should base your analysis on the humanitarian law that was binding the parties when the conflict occurred. However, this does not mean that you may not also refer to subsequent developments such as judgments of Courts, scholarly writings etc.)