BASIC GUIDE ON USING CITATIONS AND REFERENCES[1]

Required Style for ABM/FIM 100 & FIM 220

In this course, as well as throughout your college and professional career, you will have to write papers, reports, or assignments.  Many students become confused about the rules for writing when it comes to using citations and references, particularly because there are so many different styles (e.g., APA, MLA, AMA, etc.).  In the Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics, most classes will require you to follow the Author-Date System of The Chicago Manual of Style.  For this reason, the Chicago-Style (Author-Date) is the required format for all papers submitted in ABM 100.  This style will also be useful/required for writing assignments submitted in other ABM and FIM courses (e.g., FIM 220, FIM 335, ABM 400, ABM 437, FIM 439, and ABM/FIM 224).  The Chicago-Style uses parenthetical citations in the body of the text with the author’s last name and date, as well as an alphabetized reference list at the end of the document.  If you are using ProQuest, the citation style is Chicago/Turabian/Harvard: Author-Date.

Because it is very important that you properly learn to use citations and references in the Chicago-Style, this handout is provided to address two questions:

  • How should I use information to write my assignments?
  • How should I cite and reference the information used to write my assignments?

When in doubt, keep in mind two guidelines.  First, always provide citations for all of the information used in your report.  Second, always write the report in your own language.  One of the most common mistakes made by students in writing is simply omitting or carelessly addressing citations and references.  Not giving credit to the source of your information and presenting it as your own is plagiarism.  Plagiarism – intentional or not – is a violation of MSU General Student Regulations and will result in a failure in the course.  For further information regarding academic integrity and plagiarism, check out the Student Handbook and Resource Guide, Section 1.00 Protection of Scholarship and Grades and/or the following websites:  https://www.msu.edu/ unit/ombud/dishonestystud.html; and, https://www.msu.edu/unit/ombud/plagiarism.html;

Rules of Writing

  • Always combine material from different sources to write a report that is original;
  • Do not rearrange words or change adjectives/adverbs and claim that it is your own writing;
  • If you incorporate someone else’s thoughts, words, facts, or uncommon information in your writing, you need to use a parenthetical citation in the text to cite the source of your information.
  • If you use the exact words of another person, then you must include quotation marks around those words in your text and provide a parenthetical citation;
  • The parenthetical citation should tell the reader which item in the List of References is your source.  In most cases, this is done by simply including the author(s)’s name in parentheses after the sentence and before the period.  The formal Chicago Style also includes the year of publication in the parentheses.  With or without the year reference is acceptable for ABM/FIM 100 & FIM 220.
  • If different works by the same author are used, you must include the year in the parenthetical citation in order to differentiate which work you are citing; if the publication year is also the same, differentiate between the works by including the title or key word(s) from the title of each reference;  alternatively, you may include an alpha character after the year, such as 2004a, 2004b.
  • The List of References must be in alphabetical order and appears at the end of the document.  Use a hanging indent option on a word processor and always use single space for each entry and a double space between entries, even when the text of the document is double-spaced. 
  • Only references that are cited in your text should be included in your List of References.

On the following pages you will find a sample case for using citations and references as well as guidelines for listing references.  Good luck! 

Sample Case for Citations and References

In the sample paragraph below, you will see how to include a source in your text and how to compile your reference list. 

The rice marketing channel consists of seven stages, ranging from the farm input stage to the food retailing and food service stages (Schaffner, Schroeder and Earle1998).  At the farm production stage, farmers purchase inputs such as seed and equipment to produce the rice.  A commodity assembler and processor, such as Riceland Foods, purchases rice from a large number of farmers, stores the rice, mills the rice, and sells larger volumes of rice and rice flour to food manufacturers (Riceland Foods 2009, About Riceland).  Riceland Foods sells milled rice for use in such products as rice cereal, and rice flour for use in products such as baby food (Kennedy 2009).  In addition to supplying rice products to many of the top 100 food companies, Riceland Foods is a supplier of broken grains used by pet food companies and breweries (Riceland Foods 2009, Food Ingredients).

The alphabetized List of References then becomes the last page of your document:

List of References

Kennedy, K. Daniel.  President, Riceland Foods Company.  2009.  Personal correspondence by author.  March 31.

Riceland Foods.  2009.  About Riceland.  Riceland Foods Company web site:  http://www.riceland.com/about (accessed March 2, 2009).

Riceland Foods.  2009.  Food Ingredients.  Riceland Foods Company web site:  http://www.riceland.com/food_ingredients (accessed March 12, 2009).

Schaffner, David J., William R. Schroder, and Mary D. Earle.  1998.  Food Marketing: An International Perspective.  Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Guidelines for Formatting References:  How should references appear in the List of References?  Below is the typical Chicago-Style format for common sources.  Sometimes you will cite items that do not fit any of these descriptions.  What should you do?  Supply as much information as possible.   In no circumstance should you simply use information without including it in the list of references.

Books:

Last name, first name, and middle initial of author.  Publication year.  Book title in italics.  City and state: Publisher name.

                                    Schaffner, David J., William R. Schroder, and Mary D. Earle.  1998.  Food Marketing:

                        An International Perspective.  Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Newspaper and magazine articles with author known:

Last name, first name, and middle initial of author.  Publication year.  Title of article.  Name of newspaper in italics, date, page numbers of article if appropriate. 

Polgreen, Lydia. 2009.  Falling food prices threaten West African rice farmers.  New York Times, February 6, Business section. 

Newspaper and magazine articles with author unknown:

Name of newspaper in italics.  Publication year.  Title of article. Date, page numbers of article if appropriate. 

New York Times.  2009.  Falling food prices threaten West African rice farmers.  February 6, Business section.

Government documents with author(s) known:

Last name, first name, and middle initial of author.  Publication year.  Title of the report.  Name of government agency that issued the report and report number (typically appears on the front page of the report). 

Setia, Parveen, Nathan Childs, Eric Wailes, and Janet Livezey.  1994.  The U.S. Rice Industry.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economics Report No. 700, September.

Government documents with author unknown:

Name of government agency that issued the report.   Publication year.  Title of the report, report number (typically appears on the front page of the report). 

U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1994.  The U.S. Rice Industry.  Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economics Report No. 700, September.

Personal interviews and correspondences:

Last name, first name, middle initial of person interviewed.  Professional title of person interviewed.   Year of contact.  Type of communication.  Name of interviewer.  Date and place of interview (if appropriate).

Smith, John L.  Sales manager, Monsanto Incorporated.   2009.  Personal interview by author.  April 1, East Lansing, MI. 

Special note:  If you interview the person, then cite it as “Personal interview.”  If you communicate by e-mail or by a formal letter, then cite  as “Personal correspondence.”

Online Sources and Internet Web Sites:  Web site citation and reference formatting is constantly changing.  The general rule of thumb is more information is better.  Whenever possible, the reference should include the author(s)’s name, title of the article, general name of the web site, and the sponsor of the web site.  When an author for the article or page is not provided, the web site sponsor is treated as the author.  In addition, it is becoming more common to include the date you look at the web site after the URL address.  Access dates are required for this course.  When citing a web site, do not put the address of the web site in the text of the report.  Put only the name of the company or organization that sponsors the web site in the text of the report.

Online Newspaper and magazine articles with author known:

Last name, first name, and middle initial of author.  Publication year.  Title of article.  Name of web site in italics, date. URL address of specific web site cited (date of access). 

Weise, Elizabeth.  2008.  EU to U.S.: Keep genetically engineered rice to yourself.  USA Today.com, August 23. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/genetics/2006-08-23-rice-eu_x.htm (accessed May 15, 2009).

Online Newspaper and magazine articles with author unknown:

Name of newspaper/magazine/sponsor in italics.  Publication year.  Title of article.  General name of the web site, date. URL address of specific web site cited (date of access)

Associated Press.  2009.  Food crunch opens doors to bioengineered crops. High Plains Journal,  January 5.  http://www.hpj.com/archives/2009/jan09/jan5/ Foodcrunchopensdoorstobioen.cfm (accessed June 1, 2009).

USA Today.  2008.  EU to U.S.: Keep genetically engineered rice to yourself.  USA Today.com, August 23.  http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/genetics/2006-08-23-rice-eu_x.htm (accessed May 15, 2009).

special note:  simply putting usatoday.com is not a complete reference to the site –  whenever possible, cite the specific document and not just the web site.

Journal article online:

Name of author.  Publication year.  Title.  Name of Journal in italics, volume, issue, (date):  pages.  URL address of specific web site cited (date of access).    

Fuller, Frank, Mamane Annou, and Eric Wailes.  2003.  Market Impacts of Adopting Herbicide-Resistant Rice in the Southern United States.  Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, volume 35, no. 1 (April):  185-193.  http://purl.umn.edu/37859 (accessed June 23, 2009).

Internet web site article with author known:

Last name, first name, and middle initial of author.  Publication year or last revision if known.  Title of article.  Name of firm or organization sponsoring the web site, date of article.  General name of the web site: URL address of specific web site cited (date of access). 

Abraham, Thomas K.  2009.  Monsoon rain deficit widens in India, hurting sugar cane, rice.  Bloomberg website, August 6. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aCAG7ROMnpJY (accessed August 8, 2009).

Internet web sites with author unknown:

Name of firm or organization sponsoring web site.  Publication year or last revision if known.  Title of article if provided.  General name of the web site, date of article if known. URL address of specific web site cited (date of access).

Riceland Foods.  2009.  Food Ingredients.  Riceland Foods Company web site, January 15.  http://www.riceland.com/food_ingredients (accessed March 12, 2009).

Reference works online:

Name of reference site.  Publication year or last revision if known.  Title of article if provided.  URL address of specific web site cited (date of access).

Encyclopedia Britannica.  2008.  Rice (cereal grain). http//www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/502259/rice (accessed July 29, 2009).

Weblog entry or comment:

Name of blog or web site.  Year of posted comment if known.  Title of comment if known.  Date of comment if known.  URL address of specific web site cited (date of access).

Oryza hybrida blog.  2009.  Groups call for IRRI’s closure.  August 6.  http://www.grain.org/hybridrice/?blog (accessed August 15, 2009).

Table 1.  Examples of Acceptable and Unacceptable Use of Information in Project Reports.




Original Information     Here is the original information from the Riceland Foods webpage (http://www.riceland.com):   “Riceland provides marketing services for rice products, soybeans, and wheat and has become a major soybean processor, rice exporter and oil producer. Riceland also offers rice products for private label packaging as well as bulk rice for club stores and bulk users. Riceland is the largest producer of top quality rice for the American food service industry and is a major provider of rice products for consumers.”       Here is the original information from the Anheuser-Busch webpage (http://www.anheuser-busch.com/History.html):   “Today, Anheuser-Busch produces the two best-selling beers in the world, Budweiser and Bud Light; operates 12 breweries in the United States; and has operations around the globe.”
Rule #1: If you use the exact words (written or spoken) of another person, then you must include quotation marks on those words.   Unacceptable example: Riceland supplies its products to restaurants. Riceland is a major supplier of quality foodservice products. Rice, oil and shortening products are supplied to many of America’s leading restaurants, fast-food chains and cafeterias. Riceland is the largest producer of top quality rice for the American food service industry and is a major provider of rice products for consumers (Riceland 2009).   Rule #2:  Do not put several quotes, include quotation marks and citations, and consider the report to be written.  This may not plagiarism, but it results in a poor quality report and your grade will suffer.  Unacceptable example: Riceland is the largest producer of top quality rice for the American food service industry and is a major provider of rice products for consumers” (Riceland 2009).  A potential buyer of Riceland’s rice products is Anheuser-Busch.  “Today, Anheuser-Busch produces the two best-selling beers in the world, Budweiser and Bud Light; operates 12 breweries in the United States; and has operations around the globe (Anheuser-Busch 2009).   Rule #3: Do not re-arrange words or change adjectives and adverbs and claim that it is your own writing.   Unacceptable example Riceland is a large producer of superior quality rice for the U.S. food industry. A major marketer of rice products, soybeans, and wheat, Riceland has become a leading soybean processor, rice exporter and oil producer (Riceland 2009).   Rule #3:  Always combine the material with other information to write a report that is original.  Acceptable example: Riceland sells industrial food products to food service firms in the rice market channel.  These products include the Riceland brand of rice and the ChefWay brand of cooking oil and shortening derived from soybeans (another commodity purchased by Riceland).  In this market, Riceland’s customers include fast food outlets, independent restaurants, and other firms at the food manufacturing and food service stage of the rice market channel (Riceland 2009).

[1] These guidelines are the work of many people and resources in the Department of Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics at Michigan State University, including Dr. Laura Cheney and Dr. David Schweikhardt.  In addition, The Chicago Manual of Style Online (http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org) and The Chicago Manual of Style 15th Edition were used as resources for this document.

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